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About this site

This site contains most of my published work including books, invited chapters, scientific papers and software as well as more general topics. It does not contain items as published, only their early forms to protect publisher's investments.

Download what you like. You may use all or part of these works provided you acknowledge their author(s) and this site as their source. The copyright remains with me.

I gave up with Wordpress as, although pretty, it is neither reliable nor secure. I went back to this old system I wrote years ago which at least has the benefit that it works. The equation I produced using CodeCogs with grateful thanks.

Selection of recent work up to August 2017:

Conservation of Information in all discrete systems

A complete parsimonious theory using Conservation of information in an ergodic system to show that all discrete systems will have the same length and alphabet distribution. This is then demonstrated to very high statistical significance in the European Protein database, a very large amount of open source software, a large amount of downloadable music, a corpus of texts and the abundance of elements in the Universe.

Download full paper

Conservation of Information in Proteins

This is an application of Conservation of Information in the structure of proteins by Greg Warr and myself. In essence, CoI applies a global constraint on the action of natural selection by which all proteins in a species tend to have the same average size and the average size of a protein depends only on its unique amino acid alphabet including the action of post-translational modification.

PLOS ONE download
Reproducibility package
How to build reproducibility packages

Software's Hidden Clockwork

This is a recent result showing that all software systems have a hidden clockwork which forces them into the same component size distribution whatever they do, whoever wrote them and whatever technology or language was used. Just watch as 55 million lines of C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada and Tcl-Tk asymptote to the above formula in 1/2 million line chunks. The flat bit on the left is related to fixed tokens in programming languages.

IEEE TSE preprint
Theory paper 1
Theory paper 2

NOTE: December 2016. This theory has been extended to all scales and predicts that software and protein lengths are actually distributed identically. This work is under review but shows with overwhelming experimental support that neither human volition in software construction nor natural selection in proteins have anything to do with defining the length distribution of computer programs or proteins.

Email Forensics: Eliminating Spam, Scams and Phishing

Get Email Forensics at
Get Email Forensics at

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Scientific writing

  • Number of books: 5
  • Number of invited chapters: 6
  • Number of papers: 221
  • Number of articles: 61

Other writing

  • Number of items: 23

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